Guest Essay by Kip Hansen – 3 May 2022
Yes, I do know that acceleration, technically, means only a change in velocity. But, in each day English, we use acceleration to imply a rise in velocity – rushing up — and deceleration as a lower in velocity – slowing down. I point out acceleration and deceleration as a result of one of many main speaking factors of IPCC reported findings about sea stage rise, the incessant media mantra, is that “Sea Level Rise is Accelerating”. (right here, right here, right here, right here, right here and tons of extra right here)
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
LONG ESSAY ALERT: With apologies, this essay is for many who are fascinated about sea stage rise and the query: Is sea stage rise accelerating? It takes quite a lot of phrases and illustrations to clarify the true scenario. Those with restricted time can simply settle for this straightforward reply and transfer on:
“Probably not at all, just maybe a wee tiny little bit that will not make any difference over the next century or two.”
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Is sea stage rising? Yes, after all it's. It has been rising since about 1750-1775, coinciding with the tip of the Little Ice Age. This is broadly accepted as proven under:
How do we all know? The necessary facet of sea stage is the way it impacts the land on the edges of the oceans. The water stage there may be measure by tide gauges on the ports and harbors of the world. The ranges recorded by tide gauges are of native Relative Sea Level (RSL) – the extent at which the ocean floor hits the land. This measurement consists of each the precise rise within the sea floor peak (assume: distance from the middle of the Earth) plus any vertical motion (VLM) of the tide gauge itself, both up or down. In many places the land mass itself is subsiding (sinking) because of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) because the land mass readjusts itself for the melting of the glaciers of the final nice Ice Age and at most tide gauge places, the construction to which the tide gauge itself is hooked up, resembling a pier or dock or sea wall, can be itself subsiding because of compaction of the soil beneath and the truth that many such places are constructed on man-made stuffed substrate. To see if sea stage is rising, it's only needed to have a look at top quality tide gauge information for whom the VLM is understood to be comparatively fixed. The linearity of those graphs is typical, there are numerous, many extra. This picture of the information of some such tide gauges:
Sea stage is rising all all over the world however at totally different charges as proven by the slopes of the tendencies. Why? NOAA says: “The graphs give an indication of the differing rates of vertical land motion, given that the absolute global sea level rise is believed to be 1.7 +/- 0.3 millimeters/year during the 20th century.”
As you'll be able to see, every of those long-term graphs have tendencies which might be linear, that may be represented as straight traces, regardless of the huge quantity of inter-annual variation. None of them swoop up or swoop down, accelerating or decelerating on the century time scale.
This is evident as proven in long-term tide gauge information on the PSMSL. If sea stage rise was accelerating, it we'd see it in these graphs. But we don't. Why then does the IPCC and the media go on and on about Sea Level Rise (SLR) Acceleration?
Boon and Nerem (and right here). Both of those completed scientists have been publishing paper after paper (Nerem right here, Boon right here) claiming they've detected the ocean stage rise acceleration that we don't see within the tide gauge information.
I've mentioned Boon and VIMS previously. SEA LEVEL: Rise and Fall – Part 5: Bending the Trend.
I've written in regards to the efforts of R. Steven Nerem at CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences on the University of Colorado Boulder) and a serious participant at their Sea Level Group. Nerem is satisfied that sea stage rise should be accelerating. He has written papers and shows and principally satisfied the IPCC and coverage makers that that acceleration (by which he means sea stage is rising sooner and sooner) it really going down in the true world by which we dwell and breathe.
Before we go on, readers ought to concentrate on the potential bias in all of Nerem’s work:
BIAS WARNING: You ought to know that Nerem is likely one of the contributing creator’s to this WaPo, May 2016, piece “10 things you should know about sea level rise and how bad it could be”, by which it's blandly said “Scientists estimate that if it warms by about 4 to 5 degrees Celsius (7.2 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit), which is projected to happen by the end of the century if we don’t act on climate change, then all the ice will eventually melt. That’s 230 feet of sea level rise.” —– You ought to contemplate this everytime you see something about sea stage out of the Sea Level Research Group @ the University of Colorado — their weblog really accommodates a hyperlink to this newspaper article, as if it had been a scientific paper or one thing to be pleased with.
My earlier work on Nerem and the Sea Level Research Group:
SEA LEVEL: Rise and Fall – Part 3 – Computational Hubris
SEA LEVEL: Rise and Fall – Part 4 – Getting a Rise Out of Nothing
SEA LEVEL: Rise and Fall – Part 4a – Getting Even More of a Rise Out of Nothing
Now, Nerem et al. have been at it once more – nonetheless beating the ocean stage rise acceleration drum, however now with an extended knowledge set and a a lot weaker place. As of at present, the complete paper is out there as “Extrapolating Empirical Models of Satellite-Observed Global Mean Sea Level to Estimate Future Sea Level Change” by R. S. Nerem, T. Frederikse, B. D. Hamlington.
From their summary:
“We estimate a quadratic model of climate-driven global mean sea level (GMSL) change based on the satellite altimetry record (1993–2020), including a rigorous assessment of the errors in the quadratic coefficients. We then extrapolate this model 30 years into the future to 2050 and compute the 90% confidence interval. We find GMSL rise in 2050 relative to 2020 will be 16.4 cm higher, with an uncertainty range of 11.3–21.4 cm…..” (11.3 cm = 113 mm or ~ 4.45 inch : 21.4 cm = 214 mm or ~ 8.4 in)
First, let’s be clear, Nerem et al.’s paper doesn't discover something. No one can discover one thing/something in or in regards to the future. What their paper does do is it extrapolates an increase in sea stage of 16.4 cm or 6.45 inches by 2050, now 28 years away, by a mannequin primed with the idea of a quadratic curve of acceleration that they consider exists within the present sea stage knowledge.
As of at present, NOAA exhibits a sea stage rise fee of three.0 ± 0.4 mm/yr. The slope hint (black) is on the unique. This is decrease than that claimed by NASA’s on their particular sea stage rise web page of three.4 mm/yr within the subsequent picture:
Both of the above pictures, from knowledge as much as the identical day, are primarily based on the identical knowledge set from the identical satellite tv for pc missions. The distinction in 30 12 months pattern – over 10% – is the primarily based on strategies of changes for the variables as Nerem said in an earlier paper: “Satellite altimetry is somewhat unique in that many adjustments must be made to the raw range measurements to account for atmospheric delays (ionosphere, troposphere), ocean tides, variations in wave height (which can bias how the altimeter measures sea level), and a variety of other effects. In addition, the sea level measurements can be affected by the method used to process the altimeter waveforms, and by the techniques and data used to compute the orbit of the satellite.”
The above graph from NASA exhibits a minor downward shift in SLR in about 2006 by 2015, however the sub-set of information has the identical slope (pattern) as all the set. The NASA exhibits no curve, no acceleration. For particulars on Nerem‘s earlier SLR acceleration claims, see my three essays linked above.
Here is the cash plot from Nerem et al. (2022):
Nerem et al. try to assist this projection with a back-projection that they declare matches the historic document:
In this graphic, the orange hint and shading is the noticed SLR from Frederikse (2020). Note that Frederikse is a co-author on Nerem (2022). Nerem begins his curve together with his beforehand speculated curve within the satellite tv for pc knowledge and extends it again over Frederikse’s “tide gauge record”.
Ignoring the truth that Nerem’s quadratic match again in time exhibits that sea stage ought to have continued to rise into the previous (previous to 1965) as his curving quadratic pattern then begins rising, what's most blatant is that Nerem makes use of the slow-down in sea stage rise to create an acceleration.
There is one main function of Nerem’s Figure 4 that's not talked about within the caption or the textual content of the paper. It is probably the most distinguished function of the graph and but Nerem is silent on what it is perhaps or what it means. He is even silent after I wrote him by electronic mail and politely requested about it. Can you decide it out?
Yes! The large gray shaded triangular function. Such a shaded space is generally used to characterize uncertainty in knowledge or a projection. The solely point out of what the gray space is perhaps is that this: “Figure 4 shows the results of the extrapolation backwards in time prior to 1993 compared to the tide gauge GMSL record. Although the errors on the extrapolation are large, the differences with the tide gauge record have a standard deviation of only 5 mm. Since our quadratic model performs well for the period 1960–1993, it can reasonably be expected to perform similarly for the next 30 years.”
Saying that “the errors on the extrapolation are large” is an historic-scale understatement. The error vary within the backwards projection from 2022 again to 1960 is bigger than all the illustrated sea stage rise over the identical interval. The extrapolation mainly means “the sea level could have been anything over a more-than 150 mm range” – completely, completely nugatory.
[ASIDE: I will admit, that when I first read this paper, and page-downed to the page containing the graph, I literally laughed out loud.]
Now, let’s take a look at the true full document from Frederikse 2020 (used because the orange hint and shaded space in Nerem’s Fig. 4 above):
The Frederikse knowledge will not be the true noticed international sea stage from tide gauges, however is a reconstruction. But we'll let that stand, as nobody can decide international sea stage, rise or fall or fee, from tide gauge knowledge.
Looking at solely the blue hint, and its shaded space, labelled noticed SLR, we see sea stage rising from 1900 to about 1960, when the rise clearly slows, turning into almost flat. Note as nicely that in 1940, the claimed uncertainty is about ±20 mm after which reduces to about ±10 mm in 2021 – each of which can be off by a whole order of magnitude (reference my earlier essays linked initially). Then, round 1980, sea stage rise begins to regain its prior fee. Nerem makes use of this slow-down to create the phantasm of an acceleration curve that extends up into the satellite tv for pc knowledge. But, the satellite tv for pc document, authentic knowledge immediately from JPL and NASA, accommodates no curve:
This subsequent graph is immediately from the printed knowledge set of the 10-day knowledge factors from every of the Topex/Jason satellite tv for pc missions as of April 29, 2022:
Both graphs present the decade-long slow-down, 2006-2015, after which a return to the linear pattern of the Nineteen Nineties.
Here is the cash query, from a local weather pragmatist viewpoint:
To get Nerem’s 16.4 cm by 2050, sea stage must rise at 5.47 mm/yr for the subsequent 28 years — virtually twice the speed of at present. For Nerem’s greater extrapolation, 21.4 cm by 2050, sea stage must rise at 7.13 mm/yr.
As of the most recent knowledge from the Jason-3 satellite tv for pc mission, sea stage rise is continuous its long-term linear pattern of about 3 mm/yr, with no acceleration as of but.
For these , Nerem et al. give a Kipling-esque ‘Just So story’ on the way it might be that sea stage rise is accelerating of their paper, beginning on web page 5 with the sentence “The process-based argument for using a quadratic model is as follows….” .
Even at their most enthusiastic, Nerem et al. have sea stage rise acceleration at 0.1 mm/yr2.
1. Globally sea stage is rising. It has been rising because the finish of the Little Ice Age and can proceed to take action until there's a main change within the planetary local weather main to a different related chilly interval.
2. There is not any good, adequate or convincing proof that international sea stage rise is accelerating – there may be solely speculation and hypothesis. Computation will not be proof and until the outcomes will be virtually seen and measured within the bodily world, such outcomes should not be introduced as such.
3. It will not be scientifically reliable to splice tide gauge information to satellite tv for pc information – ever – as they measure totally different bodily issues. As the tide gauge document extends to the current and continues to enhance in high quality, it ought to stand alone. Tide gauge information apply solely to the locality of the tide gauge and its Relative Sea Level.
4. The international tide gauge document is quantitatively problematic, however particular person information will be proven as qualitative proof for an absence of sea stage rise acceleration.
5. Sea stage and sea stage rise are a part of the trendy scientific controversy commonly known as Global Warming or, extra lately, Climate Change. Most details introduced in discussions on all sides of the problems concerned are greater than prone to be opinions and, as at all times, opinions range. Wildly.
6. Only really measured, validated uncooked knowledge will be trusted and even then, you must actually perceive what has been measured, precisely, and how it has been measured. One such instance is the unique knowledge document of your native tide gauge – unadjusted, untampered-with, un-averaged.
# # # # #
This field-wide effort to persuade the world that sea stage rise is accelerating could be very harmful. Localities on sea shores are being compelled to attempt to plan and put together for horrifying sea ranges that won't be seen for hundreds of years, if ever.
The scenario might be likened to civil engineers of 1900 being compelled to plan their streets and highways to accommodate the speeds and sizes of at present’s high-powered cars and tandem tractor trailers. The distinction being that at present’s vehicles and vans really materialized, whereas the scary IPCC-projected RCP8.5 sea ranges by no means will.
Thanks for studying.
# # # # #